By James Wynbrandt
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Additional info for A Brief History Of Saudi Arabia (Brief History)
500 Bedouin invaded Syria and Palestine and raided Jerusalem. The warring dynasties whose lands bordered Bedouin territory (Byzantium, Sassanid Persia, and southern Arabia) tried to enlist them as allies against the dynasties’ enemies. Byzantium formed alliances with tribes on the Syrian border, the Salih and Bani Ghassan, at the beginning of the sixth century. This marked the establishment of the Ghassanid confederation, which supported the Byzantines. The Lakhmid dynasty settled near Iraq’s border and allied itself with the Sassanians.
By the time of Muhammad the pilgrimage had degenerated into what one account called “a rendezvous of unspeakable vice,” as pilgrims indulged their tastes for alcohol and debauchery (Nutting 1964, 25). 26 THE BIRTH OF ISLAM The Kaaba in Mecca’s Grand Mosque is Islam’s most sacred shrine. It was a site of religious pilgrimages and veneration even before the coming of Islam. (Courtesy of S. M. Amin/Aramco World/PADIA) 27 A BRIEF HISTORY OF SAUDI ARABIA The Quraysh was Mecca’s dominant tribe. They are thought to have arrived in Mecca sometime early in the fifth century and took control of it shortly thereafter when Qusayy, one of its members, became Mecca’s ruler, possibly through marriage to the daughter of the king he succeeded.
D. 70. D. 106. Rabbel had made a pact with the Romans: as long as they did not attack during his lifetime, they could have the kingdom after his death. The Romans renamed it Arabia Petraea, or “rocky Arabia,” and redesigned the city of Petra with traditional Roman architecture. Between Arabia Petraea in the north and Arabia Felix in the south lay the vast expanse of Arabia Deserta. A period of peace and prosperity followed during the Pax Romana. With this annexation of the kingdom, direct Roman contact with the nomads increased.