By G.A. Somorjai, M.A. van Hove
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Extra resources for Adsorbed Monolayers on Solid Surfaces
It would be interesting to extend such studies to other light-atom substrates, such as the metals beryllium and aluminium, and to investigate step effects. Heavier-atom surfaces can also be analyzed in the form of thin films of mono-atomic thickness on a lighter substrate, as has recently been done lSd). 4 FIM (Field Ion Microscopy) In Field Ion Microscopy 16), a hemispherical sample tip is imaged by allowing a gas (usually helium, but also hydrogen, neon and others) to ionize at the surface of the tip under the influence of a strong applied electric field, which also projects the ions onto a screen that can be photographed.
The increase in intensity of the surface rainbows, as displayed by this figure, for an increase in the angle of incidence, qualitatively follows the trend predicted from calculations by McClure 35 IV Methods of Structure Analysis Z (oi q > Z g 03 t 0, ANGLE FROM SURFACE NORMAL Fig. 5. Schematic atomic scattering distributions for: (a) specular scattering, (b) rainbow scattering and (c) diffraction (0,0) t -30 , • -20 i o -I0 o I I 0 o I0 o I 20 I ° 30 ° V~ Fig. 6. 5y ' ' ' ' ' X . 5 I-- N Z tlJ o ttJ rr Ld os c) 03 I O, 30 60 ANGLE FROM SURFACE NORMAL 90 Fig.
1 IR (Infrared Spectroscopy) Absorption of infrared radiation by characteristic vibrations of a surface can be used to obtain information about that surface, by comparison with known absorption frequencies in molecules of known structure. Surface sensitivity is obtained by using small particles 3°a) and thin films3°b) or, better, a multiple-reflection arrangement with optimized angles of incidence and reflection 3°c), in particular making work on single44 8 Methods Sensitiveto Vibrational Structure of Surfaces crystal surfaces difficult: the difficulty comes from the very small cross-section for interaction (about 106 times smaller than for vibrational excitation by electrons).