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The products can be selectively removed from solution by dropping the pressure or by cooling. 9 percent of hazardous organic materials into environmentally acceptable forms in just a few minutes. A supercritical water reactor is a closed system that has no emissions into the atmosphere, which is different from an incinerator. 10b The calculation shows that the more water molecules participate in the reaction, the lower the activation energy of the reaction is. For example, calculation on the following gas-shift reactions (Eq.
22. Shul’pin, G. , Geletiy, Y. , J. Gen. Chem. USSR 1987, 57, 543. 23. Schreiner, P. , Kolomitsyn, I. , Fokin, A. , Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1998, 37, 1895. 24 ALKANES 24. Horvath, I. , Cook, R. , Millar, J. , Organometallics 1993, 12, 8. 25. , J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1992, 892. 26. , Nature 1994, 368, 613; Nizova, G. , Shul’pin, G. , Chem. Commun. , Appl. Organomet. Chem. 1998, 12, 277. 27. , Hogan, T. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 4574. 28. Gol’dshleger, N. , Tyabin, M. , Shilov, A. , Shteinman, A.
The most frequently used one is potassium permanganate. 102 It is also possible to use a catalytic amount of permanganate together with a stoichiometric amount of an oxidizing reagent. 104 Recently, a gold(I) catalyzed oxidative cleavage of the C=C bond to afford ketone or aldehyde products with tert-butyl hydroperoxide as the oxidant have been reported with neocuproine in water (Eq. 23). 109 Recently, Li and co-workers reported a direct formation of tetrahydropyranol derivatives in water using a cerium-salt catalyzed cyclization in aqueous ionic liquids (Eq.