By Dr Ayse Zarakol
Now not being of the West; being in the back of the West; now not being sleek adequate; now not being built or industrialized, secular, civilized, Christian, obvious, or democratic - those descriptions have all served to stigmatize sure states via historical past. Drawing on constructivism in addition to the insights of social theorists and philosophers, After Defeat demonstrates that stigmatization in diplomacy can result in a feeling of nationwide disgrace, in addition to auto-Orientalism and inferior prestige. Ay?e Zarakol argues that stigmatized states turn into extra-sensitive to issues approximately prestige, and form their overseas coverage as a result. The theoretical argument is supported by means of an in depth historic review of imperative examples of the established/outsider dichotomy during the evolution of the trendy states approach, and in-depth reports of Turkey after the 1st international conflict, Japan after the second one international battle, and Russia after the chilly warfare.
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Additional info for After Defeat: How the East Learned to Live with the West
Research approach and chapter outline 25 as material constraints, but they can nevertheless be conceptualized and observed in their particular manifestations. e. on the social context out of which policy outcomes arise. Case studies are therefore a particularly suitable approach to study the actual manifestation of the structural conditions. 85 The case-study approach benefits from empirical research without being epistemologically empiricist. ”87 This is the broad approach underlining the analyses of case studies in this book.
The evidence for these claims lies in developments in the nineteenth century. 22 They had a different experience because they had to recreate themselves as “modern” states against a backdrop of an emerging international society of states that had already made the transition organically. The material advance of the early-comers was backed by a culture spouting universalizing claims about enlightenment, progress, rationality, and self-interest. As a result, perhaps for the fi rst time in world history, (autonomous) emulation of competitors took on a deeper meaning – in embracing the Western European state models, these agrarian empires were also enveloped in a certain new worldview, one that is specific to and the essence of modernity.
The status-conscious trajectories in the last century can be traced back to that original insecurity, and in fact this was what ultimately drove these states Westward after their respective defeats. The evidence for these claims lies in developments in the nineteenth century. 22 They had a different experience because they had to recreate themselves as “modern” states against a backdrop of an emerging international society of states that had already made the transition organically. The material advance of the early-comers was backed by a culture spouting universalizing claims about enlightenment, progress, rationality, and self-interest.