By Paul A. Thomas, Charles V. Mann
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Extra resources for Alimentary Sphincters and their Disorders
1970) found that adrenaline can cause contraction. Nicotine has various effects on human gastrointestinal muscle, and is thought to cause contraction by stimulating enteric ganglia supplying cholinergic nerves, and relaxation by releasing catecholamines (Bennett and Whitney, 1966a). Ellis et a/. (1960) found that circular muscle strips of lower oesophagus relaxed to nicotine, whereas the longitudinal muscle responded with contraction. However, Misiewicz eta/. (1969a) and Stockley 34 ALIMENTARY SPHINCTERS AND THEIR DISORDERS (1974) found that nicotine usually relaxed both circular and longitudinal muscle strips.
Watson, J. , Gramiak, R. and Weinberg, S. A. (1955). Cinefluorographic analysis of the mechanism of swallowing. Radiology, 64, 498 26 ALIMENTARY SPHINCTERS AND THEIR DISORDERS Rosenberg, J. C. and Didio, L. J. (1969). In vivo appearance and function of the ileum as observed directly through a cecostomy. Am. J. , 52, 411 Rutherford, A. H. (1926). The frenula valvulae coli. J. , 60, 564 Shafik, A. (1975a). A new concept of the anatomy of the anal sphincter mechanism and the physiology of defaecation.
Gastrin in vivo Bennett (1968) suggested that gastrin released by food may contribute to gastric motility and that gastrin-induced contraction of the lower oesophageal sphincter may help reduce gastro-oesophageal reflux. , 1969b), but dose-response relationships were not established. c. raised sphincteric pressures, and this effect was later confirmed by other workers (Cohen and Lipshutz, 1971a; Nebel and Castell, 1972, 1973). Furthermore, intragastric instillation of alkali, peptone broth or the ingestion of ground beef can increase sphincter closure tension.