By Joanna Swabe
Joanna Swabe's well timed paintings seems to be at human-animal relatives from antiquity to BSE and cloning, contending that veterinary wisdom and perform has performed a very important position in human historical past.
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Extra info for Animals, Disease and Human Society: Human-animal Relations and the Rise of Veterinary Medicine
The advent of dairying was a particularly important advance for early agricultural communities. e. sheep, goats, cattle and also later horses, could be more efficiently exploited to provide protein and energy. Males not required for breeding could still be slaughtered for meat, as could old unproductive females. Dairying was also a far more efficient form of exploitation, for it could yield between four and five times the amount of protein and energy for the amount of fodder consumed as would exploitation for meat production (Sherratt 1981:284).
These new interdependencies thus led to the evolution of what Norbert Elias (1994) described as a social constraint towards self restraint. In other words, there was increasing pressure within incipient agrarian societies for Domestication, dependency and disease 31 individuals to regulate their own behaviour in accordance with the demands and situation of others. Avarice, indolence and negligence, for example, would have had far-reaching consequences for all. With regard to animal husbandry, this self-discipline would have involved learning how to properly herd livestock, to selectively slaughter and breed animals, to provide food, shelter and the protection of livestock from predators, to ensure that captive animals did not escape and that they remained healthy.
It was necessary for species to develop cooperative associations with others in order to ensure their own survival. In the long term, this entailed under-going specific genetic and behavioural changes that would make cooperation easier. Neoteny, the retention of juvenile traits into adulthood—a feature of all domesticated animals and humans also—was probably the most important of these adaptations. The curiosity and appearance of young animals, their willingness to freely associate with members of other species and care-soliciting behaviour are characteristics that domesticated animals continue to display during adulthood.