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The classical organochlorine pesticides, p,p'-DDT, HCB, and HCH; see Fig. , 1998). , 2000). Finally, we should note that large amounts of known and unknown chlorinated compounds are formed and released to the environment due to the use of chlorine in waste and drinking water disinfection, and in bleaching processes in the pulp and paper industry. Important in this group are, for example, the trihalomethanes (THMs; CHCl,, CHBrCl,, CHBr2C1,and CHBr,). Oxygen-ContainingFunctional Groups Among the heteroatoms present in natural and anthropogenic organic compounds, oxygen plays a unique role because it is part of a large number of important functional groups.

The C,- and C,-halocarbons are, of course, not the only group of persistent polyhalogenated hydrocarbons that are of great environmental concern. Because of their hydrophobic character and tendency to bioaccumulate (see Chapter lo), a variety of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons have gained a very bad reputation. , they may disturb the hormonal balance ir? organisms; see Keith, 1997). Examples of such compounds include the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) (see Fig.

9). trans Depending on the type of substituents, usually one of the forms is the most stable one. In the case of the HCH isomers, this is the chair form. 8 Cisltrans isomerism in ring systems, such as in cyclohex- at the chair form, we see that six of the bonds linking substituents to the ring are ane. ” Conversion of one chair form into another converts all axial bonds into equatorial bonds and vice versa. In monosubstituted cyclohexanes, for electronic reasons, the more stable form is twist usually the one with the substituent in the equatorial position.

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