By Govind Agrawal
This moment variation may be an account of nonlinear optical phenomena in fiber optics. It synthesizes study fabric. specific awareness is paid to the significance of nonlinear results within the layout of optical fiber verbal exchange structures.
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Extra info for Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics
In the case of a single-mode fiber, the higher-order mode propagates inside the cladding and is called a cladding mode. The grating period required for coupling the two copropagating modes can be calculated from Eq. 2) and is given by Λ λ ∆n, where ∆n is the difference in the refractive indices of the two modes coupled by the grating. Since ∆n 0 01 typically, Λ is much larger than the optical wavelength. It is for this reason that such gratings are called long-period gratings. 3 can be used for long-period gratings.
A careful comparison of the experimental data with the theory based on the nonlinear coupled-mode equations and the effective NLS equation showed that the NLS equation provides an accurate description within its regime of validity. 17 compares the measured values of the pulse width with the two theoretical models for peak intensities of 3 and 6 GW/cm2 . 1. Using κ 7 cm 1 , we The NLS equation is valid as long as κ LNL estimate that the peak intensity can be as high as 50 GW/cm2 for the NLS equation to remain valid.
Since the amount of shift depends on the total power P0 , light at a frequency close to the edge of the upper branch can be shifted out of resonance with changes in its power. If the nonlinear parameter γ were negative (self-defocusing medium with n2 0), the loop will form on the lower branch in Fig. 11, as is also evident from Eq. 7). 2 Optical Bistability The simple CW solution given in Eq. 3) is modified considerably when boundary conditions are introduced at the two grating ends. For a finite-size grating, the simplest manifestation of the nonlinear effects occurs through optical bistability, first predicted in 1979 .