Download Armageddon Averted: The Soviet Collapse, 1970-2000: Soviet by Stephen Kotkin PDF

By Stephen Kotkin


"The clearest photo we need to date of the post-Soviet landscape."--The New Yorker

"A triumph of the paintings of up to date historical past. In fewer than 2 hundred pages, Kotkin elucidates the implosion of the Soviet empire--the most vital and startling sequence of overseas occasions of the prior fifty years--and essentially spells out why, thank you nearly fullyyt to the 'principal restraint' of the Soviet management, that cave in did not bring about a cataclysmic struggle, as all specialists had lengthy forecasted."-The Atlantic Monthly

"Concise and persuasive The secret, for Kotkin, isn't really rather a lot why the Soviet Union collapsed as why it did so with so little collateral damage."--The big apple overview of Books

About the Author

Stephen Kotkin is Professor of eu and Asian background at Princeton college, the place he additionally directs the Russian-Eurasian stories software. he's the writer of 9 books.

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Extra info for Armageddon Averted: The Soviet Collapse, 1970-2000: Soviet Collapse Since 1970

Example text

He used to take me to the park, beginning when I was in a stroller, and talk history. Preface My first encounter with the Soviet bloc took place one summer in 1983. As a graduate student of Habsburg history, I made my way to Prague from northern California to advance my language skills in pursuit of a bygone empire. ” Surprised to hear a familiar voice booming over the loudspeakers, I pushed my way through the crowd to the front, and sure enough it was him: the then socialist mayor of Berkeley.

Without the discovery of Siberian oil, the Soviet Union might have collapsed decades earlier. From 1973 to 1985, energy exports accounted for 80 percent of the USSR’s expanding hard currency earnings. And that was not all. Other oil exporting countries—top customers for Soviet weapons—saw their oil revenues increase from $23 billion in 1972 to $140 billion in 1977. Many Arab oil states went on military spending sprees, increasing Moscow’s oil windfall. What to do with all that cash? The Soviet leadership used its oil revenues to cushion the impact of the oil shock on its East European satellites.

Yet Sovietization of Eastern Europe took place not during the 1930s Great Depression and fascist militarism but during the post-war capitalist boom and deployment of comprehensive welfare states. In these altered circumstances, the fate of Soviet socialism was now irrevocably tied to the fate of the regimes in Eastern Europe. Already in the early 1950s, and especially after Nikita Khrushchev had denounced Stalin in 1956 and Poland and Hungary had erupted in revolt, Eastern Europe weighed down the Soviet leadership.

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