Download Beyond jihad : the pacifist tradition in West African Islam by Lamin Sanneh PDF

By Lamin Sanneh

"Over the process the final 1400 years, Islam has grown from a small band of fans at the Arabian peninsula right into a international faith of over one billion believers. How did this take place? the standard solution is that Islam unfold by means of the sword-believers waged jihad opposed to rival tribes and kingdoms and compelled them to transform. Lamin Sanneh argues that this can be faraway from the complete tale. past Jihad examines the foundation and Read more...

summary: "Over the process the final 1400 years, Islam has grown from a small band of fans at the Arabian peninsula right into a worldwide faith of over one thousand million believers. How did this occur? the standard resolution is that Islam unfold via the sword-believers waged jihad opposed to rival tribes and kingdoms and compelled them to transform. Lamin Sanneh argues that this can be faraway from the total tale. past Jihad examines the foundation and evolution of the African pacifist culture in Islam, starting with an inquiry into the faith's origins and enlargement in North Africa and its transmission throughout trans-Saharan alternate routes to West Africa. The booklet specializes in the ways that, with out jihad, the faith unfold and took carry, and what that tells us concerning the nature of non secular and social swap. on the middle of this technique have been clerics who used spiritual and criminal scholarship to advertise Islam. as soon as this clerical type emerged, it provided continuity and balance in the course of political adjustments and cultural shifts, aiding to inhibit the unfold of radicalism, and subduing the urge to salary jihad. With its coverage of non secular and inter-ethnic lodging, this pacifist culture took Islam past conventional alternate routes and kingdoms into distant districts of the Mali Empire, instilling a sufferer, Sufi-inspired, and jihad-negating impulse into non secular lifestyles and perform. Islam was once profitable in Africa, Sanneh argues, now not due to army could yet since it was once made African by means of Africans who tailored it to various contexts."--Jacket

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It was under the Fatimids in 972 that Jawhar al-​ Siqilli, “the Sicillian,” a Christian of Byzantine background brought as a slave to Qayrawan, founded Al-​A zhar, which was turned soon afterward into an academy by the caliph al-​‘Aziz. Religious Realignment Around the Mediterranean Over the centuries, Islam’s formative structures and institutions developed and took hold to create a cultural frame aligning Egyptian and North African society as no other religion had done before. David Wasserstein of Vanderbilt University noted this integrative force of Islam with respect to the scattered Jewish and other dhimmí (non-​Muslim protected people) communities of the seventh century.

The stereotypes and caricatures of Islam and of Muslims as dangerous and unreliable and therefore requiring apprivoisement (breaking in) justified a policy of targeting Muslims with the goal of making them submit as colonial collaborators and clients. In the colonial perception, Islam attracted to itself irrational and unstable elements of primal Africa and, as such, constituted an unacceptable challenge to France’s mission civilisatrice. A colonial administrative campaign was orchestrated and launched against the marabouts perceived as masterminds of a Muslim jihad that existed only in the imagination of an insecure colonial power.

The geometrical arrangement of the continent’s land mass explains the history of culture contact between North Africa and southwest Asia, as is evident from the course of trans-​Saharan traffic and, in subsequent centuries, the rise of Islam in Arabia and its spread within a generation to Egypt and North Africa. This is the physical backdrop to Africa’s recorded history. In the dim, distant centuries before the rise of Islam and its spread to North Africa, the continent 23 B e y o n d N o r t h A f r i c a : S y n t h e s i s a n d Tra n s m i s s i o n 23 was exposed to traffic and influences stemming from Egypt and beyond, with the winds and sands of the desert bearing more than simply the random drift of their rotation.

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