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By E. Feldman, R. Nelson

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Extra resources for Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction

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Remember that the concentration of the canine renal medullary interstitial fluid can be greater than 2500 mOsm/kg. (Reprinted with permission from Frohman LA, Krieger DT: In Felig P, et al (eds): Endocrinology and Metabolism. ) It should be noted that 85% to 90% of the fluid filtered by the glomerulus is reabsorbed isosmotically with sodium and glucose in the proximal portion of the nephron. Sodium is then selectively reabsorbed from the remaining fluid, making the fluid hypotonic as it reaches the distal nephron.

Plasma Osmolality. The most important stimulus for thirst and vasopressin secretion under physiologic conditions is plasma osmolality. At plasma osmolalities below a certain minimum or threshold value (approximately 280 mOsm/kg), plasma vasopressin is uniformly suppressed to low or undetectable levels. Above this point, plasma vasopressin and the sensation of thirst increase in direct proportion to increases in plasma osmolality (Fig. 1-6). The relationship among thirst, plasma AVP concentration, and plasma osmolality is quite sophisticated.

Confirmation requires appropriate pituitary adrenocortical function tests (see Chapter 6). PRIMARY HYPERALDOSTERONISM. Polyuria and polydipsia have been reported in cats and dogs with primary hyperaldosteronism. The mechanism for polyuria and polydipsia is not clear, although mineralocorticoid-induced renal resistance to the actions of AVP and disturbed osmore- gulation of AVP release has been documented in a dog with primary hyperaldosteronism (Rijnberk et al, 2001). Similar abnormalities have been identified in dogs with glucocorticoid excess, suggesting similar mechanisms of action for the polyuria and polydipsia in hyperaldosteronism and hyperadrenocorticism.

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