By Filomeno V. Aguilar Jr.
This article illuminates the oral traditions of the Philippines and the convergence of capitalism and the indigenous spirit international. the writer examines the social family members, cultural meanings and political struggles surrounding the increase of sugar haciendas on Negros through the past due Spanish colonial interval, and their next transformation less than the aegis of the yank colonial kingdom. Drawing on oral historical past, interviews and a big selection of resources culled from data in Spain, the U.S., the uk and the Philippines, the writer reconstructs the emergence of a sugar-planter category and its strategic maneuvers to realize hegemony. The publication portrays neighborhood actors taking an energetic position in shaping the exterior forces that impinge on their lives. It examines hacienda lifestyles from the indigenous viewpoint of magic and spirit ideals, reinterpreting a number of severe stages of Philippine heritage within the procedure. via studying mythic stories as bearers of historic realization, the writer explores the complicated interactions among neighborhood tradition, international interventions, and capitalist marketplace forces.
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Extra info for Clash of Spirits: The History of Power and Sugar Planter Hegemony on a Visayan Island
Thus the aura of power and inﬂuence sought by foreign merchants was won unwittingly by Sturgis through a historic rite of passage that native observers interpreted as a sign of approval by the entire cosmic polity. In the indigenous worldview, the Protestant/Masonic merchant capitalists had earned spiritual favor through the sheer demonstration of superior strength in their contest with the friars. The wedding episode served to elucidate “the evil” the foreign merchants represented. Merchants and friars were locked, not in a ﬁght between the two absolutes of good and evil as understood in the JudeoChristian sense, but rather in the amoral struggle between competing supernatural forces, a struggle decided solely by the superior power of the victor.
But the Inquisitors knew their battleﬁeld, for Masonic inﬂuence did have an intimate link to the revolutionary ferment in Spanish America. From the Hidalgo Revolt onward, Masonic organizations provided inspiration and support to the wars of independence in Mexico and played a crucial role in the immediate postindependence period (Fisher 1939, 198 –214), presaging the Masonic inﬂuence in the latenineteenth-century nationalist campaign by native elites in the Spanish Philippines. The turbulent viceroyalty’s Holy Ofﬁce, however, could not enunciate a policy toward Freemasonry for fear of treading upon the toes of powerful colonial ofﬁcials and creole priests, many of whom had Masonic ties.
During this golden period the Marian cult began to ﬂourish, a faith that made the Spanish belief system, with its emphasis on female power, more intimately proximate to the native worldview. As a result of the Inquisition, little was required from the multitude but their attendance at ceremonies and the reproduction of ofﬁcially sanctioned words and gestures. The prevailing orthodoxy encouraged the popularity of ensalmadores (casters of spells) and saludadores (healers) in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.