By Richard Swinburne
God is usually outlined as a spirit who's current in every single place, understands every little thing, is ready to do something, is the author of the area, is completely loose, completely stable, everlasting, immutable, one whose instructions impose responsibilities on participants, and who's in a few experience an important being. In The Coherence of Theism, the 1st quantity in a hugely acclaimed trilogy at the philosophy of faith, Richard Swinburne examines what it skill, and if it is coherent philosophically, to assert that there's this kind of being. He concludes that, regardless of philosophical objections, some of the claims approximately God made by means of spiritual believers are in truth coherent. furthermore, he discusses claims that don't cohere and demonstrates that a few very important claims cohere provided that the phrases during which they're expressed are stretched or used analogously.
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Hence ‘honesty weighs ten pounds’ entails ‘there is something which both is and is not a physical object’, that is a selfcontradictory statement. 10 From the results of this paragraph it follows that any proposition whose negation is incoherent will be a proposition whose negation entails a selfcontradictory statement, and conversely. From this it follows that this latest deﬁnition and my original deﬁnition of ‘analytic’ are equivalent. There is a well-known kind of objection to the applicability of deﬁnitions of the kind which I have been discussing which is due to Quine.
Studies in Logical Theory (American Philosophical Quarterly Monograph, No. 2, Oxford, 1968) . 11 See his ‘Two Dogmas of Empiricism’. CONDITIONS FOR COHERENCE 21 accounts of the nature of analyticity yield deﬁnitions of an analytic proposition equivalent to the one with which in the main I will operate; this will enable me to use the other deﬁnitions on occasion. Earlier I deﬁned a synthetic proposition as a coherent statement whose negation is also coherent. Equivalently, on any of these deﬁnitions of ‘analytic’, we may say that a synthetic statement is a coherent statement which is not analytic.
I am not saying that the established ways of arguing will necessarily always (or even often) yield true results—whether they can be guaranteed to do so depends rather on the ﬁeld of discourse in question and the structure of the argument—but merely that the existence of such ways of arguing for them shows that we are dealing with claims about how things are which are either true or false. Proofs of Coherence and Incoherence Given that a certain sentence expresses a statement, makes a claim, what further must be the case if it is to express a coherent claim?